The "Queen of Heaven" Identified as Cybele |

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Jer 7:18 The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead their dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that they may provoke me to anger.


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Christmas - "Queen of Heaven"


Volumes have been written about her by numerous ancient historians and modern-day mythologist alike. She has been known by a multitude of names in almost every corner of the planet. In mythology, her roots are often found in a Phrygian forest located in modern day Turkey. Throughout the ages, she has become intertwined in Egyptian, Greek, and Roman mythology as well as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. People around the world have celebrated her festivals for thousands of years, and she has found her way into virtually every institute of higher learning in the world. The Bible portrays her as a serious stumbling block for the people of God. Some might be inclined to call her the black stone of death, yet millions think one of their religious duties is to traverse the world in hopes of pressing their lips to her unremarkable likeness. Other people shed endless, heartfelt tears in her honor. Sincere Christians sing her praises, and one Pope even released a music CD in her honor. Rulers have sought her, warriors have smashed her, and she has been credited with the rise and fall of some of the most powerful nations the earth has ever seen. Even though her likeness has been carried in the hands of a single woman, an entire ship was constructed for the sole purpose of conveying her idol from her Phrygian homeland to the very heart of Rome. This section may prick the hearts of many; it must be engaged upon with prayerful study and a full focus on our Lord and Savior. Otherwise, the temptation of falling into despair may overtake the heart after coming to comprehend the level of deceit unleashed by the cunning master of deception. Perhaps no pagan deity in the history of the world has ensnared so many nations and religious sects as the "Mother of the gods." Her name is Cybele (pronounced sib-uh-lee Listen ), but this is certainly not her only name. The fact this pagan deity is known by numerous appellations cannot be overstated. The connection to many of her aliases will begin to be examined in this brief overview.

Cybele and Attis Overview

All the ideas put forth in this overview will be substantiated and examined in more detail throughout this chapter. Dealing with pagan deities can be very confusing because of their ability to change names, relatives, and even powers depending upon which group of people are worshiping them and when that worship is taking place. Therefore, charts will occasionally be used to provide clarity.

Cybele’s popularity has endured the ages. She lures old and young, men and women, king and farmer. This object of harlotry seduces the multitudes with her sacraments, renovating their religious rites until she is venerated. The so-called "Mother of the gods" has a train of deified cohorts, but her favored accomplice is the ever-present Attis. The Emperor Julian stated "Attis is always the minister and charioteer of the mother of the gods" in his oration on Cybele. (Julian 170).

Mythic tradition places Cybele in her sacred Phrygian forest where she encounters a young boy named Attis. She becomes enchanted with young Attis and desires him to serve as her royal, celibate priest. Attis falls in love with another mythical creature named Sagaritis and violates his vow of celibacy. Cybele kills Sagaritis. Attis then castrates himself in an act of self-punishment.

During the second Punic war, the Romans interpreted a perceived omen to mean they needed to bring Cybele to Rome. Representatives traveled to Turkey where a ship was constructed out of Cybele's sacred forest. The small, black stone which represents this pagan deity was carried back to Rome on this vessel.

Mythologists assert Cybele is the wife of Saturn. In the world of mythology, Saturn would eat the babies he and Cybele conceived, and only through trickery, did their baby Jupiter avoid this fate. Cybele is also said to be the mother of several other pagan deities, and this is where she gets the title "Mother of the gods." Macrobius calls Cybele by the name "Mother of the Gods" in this quote.

"In like fashion the Phrygians, who have kept unchanged the performance of their rites and the tales attached to them, allow us to understand the Mother of the Gods and Attis along the same lines. For surely no one doubts that the Mother of the Gods is thought to be the earth: the goddess is carried along by lions, animals whose powerful, hot-blooded attacks capture the nature of heaven, whose sphere embraces the air that carries the earth. They outfit the sun, under the name of Attis, with a pipe and a rod: the pipe represents a sequence of uneven breaths, because the winds, which have nothing even about them, take their substance from the sun; the rod shows the power of the sun, which regulates all things" (Macrobius vol. I 281).

The "Mother of the Gods" is identified in Kaster's notes for the page as Cybele. "For Attis, another reflex of the 'dying god' figure, and the cult of the Great Mother of Gods(Cybêlê) cf Lucr. 2.600-60, Catull. 63, Ov F 4.221-44, Paus. 7.17.10-12, Arnob. 5.5-17" (Macrobius vol. I 281).

Image showing Cybele idol being pulled by lions.
Cybele idol being pulled by lions.
The left illustration shows items associated with Cybele and Attis. The right illustration shows idol of Attis with pan pipe and shepherd's crook.
The left illustration shows items associated with
Cybele and Attis. The right illustration shows an idol of Attis with
pan pipe and shepherd's crook.
(Montfaucon 18b)

These images and illustrations match perfectly with Macrobius' description of these pagan idols. Cybele is shown with her lions and crown, as she is frequently depicted. Attis is holding a pan flute and a shepherd’s crook which is also referred to as a rod. Attis’ attire reveals his stomach in this illustration. This is to relate him to both feminine and masculine characteristics, since he was a eunuch from his adolescence (Montfaucon 17).

Macrobius connects Cybele with nature worship and Attis, especially, with sun worship. In our Bible, Paul talks about nature worship while specifically addressing the Romans.

Rom 1:20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: Rom 1:21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Rom 1:22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, Rom 1:23 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. Rom 1:24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: Rom 1:25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

The context of these scriptures demonstrates a strong link between nature worship and sexual deviancy. One common theme throughout the history of paganism is temple prostitution. In many societies, male and female slaves were dedicated to temple service. Every family, regardless of rank or state, was willing to give their "virgin daughters" over to temple prostitution (Strabo 274). Herodotus called it the "most shameful custom" (Herodotus, "Vol. I" 264). He claimed only the Greeks and the Egyptians did not engage in sexual acts within the temples (Herodotus, "Vol. II" 94).

Sculpture of Attis with a head dress similar to the crown on the Statue of Liberty.
Sculpture of Attis with a head dress similar to the crown on the Statue of Liberty.
(Showerman, "Great Mother" 288 face)

A closer examination of Attis will take place later in this chapter. For now, a very brief summary of the description of Attis given in book IV of Ovid's Fasti will suffice: Ovid describes Attis as a Phrygian boy who catches the attention of Cybele. He also states Cybele desired Attis to serve her (Ovid 149).

In the illustration of Attis above, he is also wearing the Phrygian Cap. The Phrygian Cap was worn by pagan priest during sacrificial services to Mithra (god of light or sun), as we saw in the chapter dealing with the hat. This falls in line with Macrobius' connection of Attis with sun worship.

Idols of Cybele and Attis both have a signature head dress which readily identifies them to their observers. These headdresses are integral to the identity of these two pagan gods. The crown is Cybele’s signature. The Phrygian Cap is by far the most frequently used signature for Attis. However, sculptors and painters have used various head dresses indicative of the sun to readily identify Attis to their audiences. For example, this image from the doctorate theses of Grant Showerman shows a sculpture of Attis with a head dress akin to the crown on the Statue of Liberty. The extended rays indicate the rays of the sun. These idols are sometimes depicted without their headdresses. In these instances, they can be identified by other included items such as the lions for Cybele and the pan flute for Attis.

Today, one can commonly hear people refer to the earth as "mother earth." This is simply another name for the "Mother of the gods" or Cybele, as Macrobius makes clear when he states "the Mother of the Gods is thought to be the earth."

Aliases of Cybele
Mother Earth
Mother of the gods

The names "Mother of the gods" and Mother Earth are shown as aliases for Cybele in this chart. This pagan deity is referred to as Cybele here, but she could, with equal ease, be referred to by a deluge of other titles.

gods of Many Names

There is plenty of deception and confusion surrounding these pagan gods. The confusion begins with their numerous titles. Both Cybele and Attis have numerous names by which they are called. Attis is honored as the actual sun. Montfaucon says Attis, the Sun, Serapis, Mithras, Dis (Pluto), Typhoon, Ammon, and Adonis are all the same god (Montfaucon 17). There are more aliases for Attis, but our primary focus here will be Cybele.

This god named Cybele has many aliases. The following quote reveals one of those aliases is Vesta, and she is said to be the sister and wife of Saturn.

"The Elder Vesta, or Cybele, she of whom we speak, was daughter of Coelus and Terra, and wife of her brother Saturn, to whom she bore a numerous offspring, and was commonly called by the Greeks Estia" (Bell 204).
Aliases of CybeleSpouseBrother
Elder VestaSaturnSaturn
Mother Earth
Mother of the gods

This chart shows Cybele is also known by the names Elder Vesta and Estia, and she is said to be the sister and wife of Saturn.

This next quote contains a partial list of some of the names Cybele was known by.

"This deity had a variety of names besides that of Cybele, under which she is most generally known. . . . Her other names, an explanation of which will be found in the course of the alphabet, are Berecynthia Mater, Bona Dea, Dindyme, or Dindymene, Fatua, Fauna, Idaea Mater, Magna Deorum, Mater, Magna Pales, Mygdonia, Ops, Pasithea, Pessinuntia, Rhea, and Vesta" (Bell 205).
Aliases of CybeleSpouseBrother
Berecynthia MaterFatuaMaterPasitheaSaturnSaturn
Bona DeaFaunaMother EarthPessinuntia
Dindyme or DindymeneIdaea MaterMother of the godsRhea
Elder VestaMagna DeorumMygdonia
EstiaMagna PalesOps

The following names have been added to the chart showing the growing list of Cybele's aliases: Berecynthia Mater, Bona Dea, Dindyme or Dindymene, Fatua, Fauna, Idaea Mater, Magna Deorum, Magna Pales, Mater, Mygdonia, Ops, Pasithea, Pessinuntia and Rhea. The names Ops and Rhea are highlighted in red because those two aliases will be of particular interest in this chapter.

Bell's New Pantheon identifies Cybele as both Ops and the wife of Saturn. Macrobius also identifies Ops as the wife of Saturn in the following quote.

"The goddess Ops was believed to be Saturn's spouse, and the Saturnalia and Opalia were both celebrated in this month because Saturn and his wife were thought to have discovered both grains and fruits" (Macrobius vol. I 109).

This quote from Macrobius shows the wife of Saturn is called Ops. It also reveals the Opalia was celebrated in the same month as the Saturnalia. The Opalia was a celebration in honor of the pagan deity named Ops which was shown above to be an alias of Cybele.

One of her Festivals

The following quote shows the festival to Ops called the Opalia was part of the Saturnalia.

"Four other festivals were connected and formed a part of it [Saturnalia]; these were the Opalia, the Sigillaria, the Larentalia, and the Juvenalia. The Opalia was in honour of the Goddess Ops or Cybele, and was held on the eighteenth" (Shackell 351).

In fact, Macrobius reports the feast to Ops actually took place on the precise date of the Saturnalia.

"From all this, then, we can conclude both that the Saturnalia comprised a single day and that it was the fourteenth day before the Kalends of January: on that day alone the Saturnalia used to be proclaimed in the temple of Saturn in the course of a relaxed banquet. That day is now assigned to the Opalia, in the course of the Saturnalia, though it was originally assigned both to Ops and to Saturn" (Macrobius vol. I 107-09).

The fact Cybele is known as Ops and her festival called the Opalia was celebrated during the Saturnalia is important in the study of Christmas. This is because many of the traditions used in the worship of this deity at the Opalia, during the Saturnalia, are the same traditions now used in the worship of Christ during Christmas. This is in direct opposition to the word of God which says not to worship God in the same manner the pagans worship their gods. Here are some of the verses which say this.

Deu 12:1 These are the statutes and judgments, which ye shall observe to do in the land, which the LORD God of thy fathers giveth thee to possess it, all the days that ye live upon the earth.
Deu 12:2 Ye shall utterly destroy all the places, wherein the nations which ye shall possess served their gods, upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every green tree:
Deu 12:3 And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the names of them out of that place.
Deu 12:4 Ye shall not do so unto the LORD your God.


Deu 12:30 Take heed to thyself that thou be not snared by following them, after that they be destroyed from before thee; and that thou enquire not after their gods, saying, How did these nations serve their gods? even so will I do likewise.
Deu 12:31 Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God: for every abomination to the LORD, which he hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters they have burnt in the fire to their gods.

There is a clear connection between Cybele and the Saturnalia. The celebration of Christmas has also been shown in previous chapters to be partly derived from the Saturnalia. Therefore, there are many Christmas customs which can be tied directly to the worship of Cybele and her aliases. Even if this were not reason enough to cause the Christian to reconsider participating in these customs, then a clear warning in the Bible from God about the dangers of worshiping this pagan deity should be more than enough reason to put these pagan traditions aside.

Cybele in the Bible

The name Cybele is not found in the Bible, but one of her aliases ("Queen of Heaven") is found in the Bible. Therefore, one may identify Cybele in the Bible. In the chart of aliases above, the name Rhea was highlighted in red as another alias of Cybele. The next quote explains Rhea and the "Queen of Heaven" are different names for the same deity.

"The Queen of Heaven. Rhea or Galli was one of the most revered sanctae of Roman paganry. Although spoken of as the mother of the gods Jupiter, Neptune, Ceres etc.; yet is she ever virgin. Her exact relationship to the greater gods is somewhat differently told by different classic poets and by mythologists. Often with bated breath she is spoken of as 'Bona Dea.' Probably she is fundamentally the same personage who all round the Mediterranean basin was adored under different names; the various nations in that district having an ineradicable impulse to worship of the feminine — Astroarche (Accadian) Mylitta (Persian) Melechet (Hebrew) and so on. Under this last name she was a sore temptation to the Jews. Jeremiah reproved those who had wandered into Egypt for burning incense to the Queen of Heaven, their reply being that their fathers and kings and princes in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem had so burnt incense" (Archer 173).

The names "Queen of Heaven," Galli, Astroarche, Mylitta and Melechet are now added to the growing list of Cybele's aliases.

Aliases of CybeleSpouseBrother
Astroarche EstiaMagna Deorum Mother of the gods PessinuntiaSaturn Saturn
Berecynthia Mater Fatua Magna Pales Mygdonia Queen of Heaven
Bona Dea Fauna MaterMylittaRhea
Dindyme or Dindymene GalliMelechet Ops
Elder Vesta Idaea MaterMother EarthPasithea

The title "Queen of Heaven" is easily recognizable to those who are familiar with the Bible. Cybele is none other than the "Queen of Heaven" for which, in worshiping, the people of God poured the anger and fury of the Lord GOD out upon themselves.

Jer 7:17 Seest thou not what they do in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem?
Jer 7:18 The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead their dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that they may provoke me to anger.
Jer 7:19 Do they provoke me to anger? saith the LORD: do they not provoke themselves to the confusion of their own faces?
Jer 7:20 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, mine anger and my fury shall be poured out upon this place, upon man, and upon beast, and upon the trees of the field, and upon the fruit of the ground; and it shall burn, and shall not be quenched.

Characteristics of the "Queen of Heaven"

Identifying more of the characteristics of the pagan Cybele or "Queen of Heaven" will prove useful at this time. Cybele has been shown to be connected to the Saturnalia through her alias Ops.

Image showing the Megalesia on the Chronography of 354.
Partial image of calendar from Chronography of 354
(The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 6)

The "Queen of Heaven" also had another festival more closely attached to the name Cybele which took place in the spring. It was called the Megalesia, and it began on the fourth of April. In this image, it is highlighted on part 6 of the Chronography of 354, which is the Philocalian calendar. The LVDI simply means games.

One of the best secular sources of information about the "Queen of Heaven" comes from the fourth book of Ovid's Fasti. The Fasti, also called the Book of Days, was published in the year 8 A.D. and is a Latin poem which explains the origins of some Roman religious holidays. This book can transport the reader back in time to see exactly what the pagans of Rome believed during the very time Christ walked the earth. One can turn to Ovid to get a description of some of the ways the Megalesia was celebrated and to also get a better idea of how Cybele was viewed by the people of that time.

~ Ovid's Fasti ~

"Soon will the twisted Berecynthian horn
Announce the Idaean Mother's Festal Morn.
With rattling drums the unmanly crew goes round,
And clashing cymbals give a brazen sound;
On their soft necks her Priests the Goddess bear
Through the wide streets,
while shouts afflict the air.
The thronging theatre and games invite.—
Hasten, ye Romans, to enjoy the sight!
Leave off your work, forget your toils and care,
And grant a truce to the contentious bar!
Much could I ask, but that my wretched ears
The yelling clank of brazen cymbals tears;—
That Lotos-serpent, too! with horrid moan,
Like some mad bull, goes bellowing through the town.
Great Cybelëian Goddess! send, I pray,
Thy learned Nieces to assist my lay.
She heard, and yielding to her suppliant's prayer,
Commands them, at my summons, to appear.
Ye dwellers of the Heliconian Hill!
Whence Hippocrene's pellucid streams distil,
Mindful of the command, the reason tell
Why the Great Goddess likes this constant yell?
I ask; my doubts thus Erato resolves,
To whom the Cytherëian month devolves:—
Well may that Muse the Month of Venus claim,
On whom the God of Love confers his name:
This lot to Saturn by the Fates was given,—
Thy son shall drive thee from the throne of heaven.
Fearful of his own offspring, he, in haste
Devour'd each, soon as born, in dire repast:
So oft a mother,—of her babes forlorn,—
Rhea her very fruitfulness would mourn.
Jove came to life;—for proof old tales will stand,—
Let settled faith thy reverence command;
A stone, dressed up, the divine bowels filled;—
Thus, by the Fates, the father was beguiled.
Now lofty Ida sounds with clanging noise,
To drown the wailings of the infant's voice;
Shields beat with sticks, and helmets clamours gave,
Curetes these, those Corybantes have.
In memory of that danger overcome,
Her followers strike the brass, and beat the drum,
For shields and helmets, drums and cymbals bear,
And still the ancient Phrygian pipe we hear"
(Ovid 148-49).

This part of Ovid's Fasti describes the Megalesia. It explains the festival was announced by the blowing of a horn which carried Cybele's name. Ovid calls it a "Berecynthian" horn. Berecynthia is one of Cybele's Aliases as shown in the chart of aliases. The words of Virgil confirm the name Berecynthia was connected to Cybele in the following quote. The name is highlighted here for clarity.

"And that one city shall for herself wall around seven strong Hills, happy in a Race of Heroes. Clothed with such Majesty as Mother Berecynthia, crowned with Turrets, rides in her Chariot through the Phrygian Towns, joyful in a Progeny of Gods, who embraces an hundred Grand-children, all inhabitants of Heaven, all seated in the high celestial Abodes" (Virgil 166).

These words by Virgil perfectly describe how Cybele was often portrayed.

Image showing a crowned Cybele in a cart being pulled by lions through the heavens surrounded by other deities.
The gods Cybele and Adonis surrounded by Korybantes, from the Parabiago patera (dating from 361-363 A.D.). Archeological Museum in Milan, Italy. Photograph by Giovanni Dall'Orto

This image shows Cybele's chariot being pulled by lions which coincides with Macrobius' description of her seen earlier.

Turning back to the words of Ovid, he states as soon as the festival is announced in the morning by the blowing of the horn, an "unmanly" (eunuch) crew goes around with drums and cymbals carrying the idol through the streets. This was a very loud occasion. Ovid declares everyone is encouraged to take off from work and call a truce in legal proceedings. Ovid stresses the noise is overwhelming. He proclaims the "yelling clank of brazen cymbals" tears his ears, then he says there is a horrid moan coming from a "lotus serpent."

Ovid shows Cybele was seen as a mediator between humans and the gods when he prays to her, asking her to send her nieces to answer his questions. He then relays why this festival of Cybele is so constantly loud. Erato is chosen to speak.

She says Saturn was given a prophecy he would be ousted by his own offspring, so he started eating his children as soon as they were born. Rhea (Cybele), Saturn's wife, mourned because every time she had a child Saturn would devour it. Then Jove (Jupiter) was born, and Saturn mistook a stone which was disguised in baby clothing for Jupiter. The mythological Erato states Saturn ate the stone rather than the baby Jupiter. Ida (probably Cybele from her alias Idaea Mater or possibly a nymph named Ida) continually made clanging noises to drown out the cries of Jupiter, so Saturn would not hear him. Since then, the Curetes (Rhea's dancing warrior priests) and the Corybantes (Cybele's extravagant dancing priests) have memorialized the story by beating drums and striking cymbals, shields, and helmets and also by playing the Phrygian flute.

The pagan deity Cybele ("Queen of Heaven") and her dancing priest were very popular in antiquity as is revealed in this next quote.

"Corybantes, priests of Cybele, who danced and capered to the beating of drums. They inhabited Mount Ida in the island of Crete, where they nourished the infant Jupiter, keeping a continual tinkling with their cymbals, that his father Saturn, who had determined to devour all his male offspring, might not hear the cries of this child. As among all the religious orders of antiquity we meet with none oftener in authors, so none were so extravagant in their rites as these priests of Cybele. These we find under the different names of Corybantes, Curites, Galli, and Idaei Dactyli" (Bell 195).

This next quote shows the extent to which this pagan deity has been ingrained into modern culture.

"Gallantes, among the Romans a surname given to the priests of Cybele, whence the modern terms gallant and gallantry have been formed" (Bell 322).

The fact Cybele and the "Queen of Heaven" are one and the same pagan deity has already been established. The Bible reveals exactly how God feels about His people getting mixed up with the "Queen of Heaven" in the following verses.

Jer 44:25 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saying; Ye and your wives have both spoken with your mouths, and fulfilled with your hand, saying, We will surely perform our vows that we have vowed, to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto her: ye will surely accomplish your vows, and surely perform your vows.
Jer 44:26 Therefore hear ye the word of the LORD, all Judah that dwell in the land of Egypt; Behold, I have sworn by my great name, saith the LORD, that my name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah in all the land of Egypt, saying, The Lord GOD liveth.
Jer 44:27 Behold, I will watch over them for evil, and not for good: and all the men of Judah that are in the land of Egypt shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine, until there be an end of them.
Jer 44:28 Yet a small number that escape the sword shall return out of the land of Egypt into the land of Judah, and all the remnant of Judah, that are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall know whose words shall stand, mine, or theirs.
Jer 44:29 And this shall be a sign unto you, saith the LORD, that I will punish you in this place, that ye may know that my words shall surely stand against you for evil:

Anyone desiring to avoid the "Queen of Heaven" in today's world will find the task almost impossible because she has invaded the educational institutions.

Alma Mater

The next quote gives two additional aliases for Cybele.

"The archetype of Cybele was likewise the great productive power that gives rise to all formations. She was conceived to be the ruler of the elements and the beginning of time; the highest goddess of the heavens, as well as the queen of the lower world; and even the representative of every deity. . . . In the temple of the great mother of life, at Pessinus in Galatia, a small stone of a blackish color, and rough, irregular surface, represented the Alma Mater. It was also the idea of this mysterious being which was hidden in the Egyptian Isis, whose temple bore this inscription, 'I am all that is, that was, and that will be, and no mortal has lifted my veil'" (Dwight 148).

In this quote, Cybele is equated to Isis and also referred to as "Alma Mater." In the chart of aliases below, the names Isis and Alma Mater are added to the growing list of aliases for Cybele.

Aliases of CybeleSpouseBrother
Alma MaterElder VestaIdaea MaterMelechetOpsSaturnSaturn
AstroarcheEstiaIsisMother EarthPasithea
Berecynthia MaterFatuaMagna DeorumMother of the godsPessinuntia
Bona DeaFaunaMagna PalesMygdoniaQueen of Heaven
Dindyme or DindymeneGalliMaterMylittaRhea

Today, the phrase Alma Mater immediately brings to mind schools, colleges, and universities. The term is used almost exclusively in reference to educational institutions. Therefore, we should not be surprised Isis, who has just been shown to be another alias for Cybele, is the very emblem of supreme wisdom and understanding in the pagan world.

"The Goddess Isis or Mythra was the Emblem of the Supreme Wisdom or Understanding" (Boyse 216).

The basis of the university can be traced to the early middle age monasteries and the interest in continual learning promoted by many of the Monks. The university, as we know it today, was born during the high middle ages in Italy. The regulation of universities was begun by Pope Gregory IX when he issued a Papal bull which forced existing universities to accept instructors from the church ran University of Toulouse. Existing universities were forced to accept instructors from the church without any further examination. Other universities or Studium Generale then began to apply for similar bulls. The church at Rome was able to exercise control over, and regulate, the universities in this manner. Universities flourished during the Renaissance which was a time when the focus on the individual reigned supreme. Farm life was traded for apartment life in the cities. Modesty and humbleness took a backseat to materialism and arrogance. People were becoming less religious and more politically motivated. Morality was being replaced by money as wealthy bankers and merchants dominated the political scene. The heart of man was being drawn away from God and toward the love of man’s wisdom called philosophy. The ideas of men like Socrates and Plato were held in higher regard than the pure word of God. One can easily see the parallels between the choice of mankind during this era and the choice Adam and Eve made in the garden. In both cases, the love of God is replaced by a quest for knowledge of good and evil.

Image showing the Alma Mater statue
Alma Mater statue
Columbia University

This statue of Alma Mater is at Columbia University. There is a similar one at the University of Illinois, and there are more statues of Alma Mater at universities around the world. There can be little doubt these universities know exactly who Alma Mater is. They exhibit the statue of the so-called Mother of gods with her title prominently displayed on the stone pedestal directly below her statue. The figures in the statues are often depicted in ancient Roman dress, and there are always identifying markings such as the bottom of the legs of Alma Mater's chair being fashioned like the paws of a lion. The ancient depictions of Alma Mater usually included lions on both sides of her. In those ancient depictions, the lions also sometimes made up the sides or legs of her chair. Other identifying characteristics might include a turreted crown or a scepter. The careful observer will often find numerous other identifying characteristics in each statue. These are the very institutions of higher learning where the people responsible for the placement of these statues have read the likes of Virgil and Ovid. They are well aware of exactly what these statues represent. The placement of these statues at educational institutions and also the name Alma Mater serve as more than insignificant symbolism. There is a real war being waged against our Creator at these institutions.

The Latin phrase alma mater means nourishing or fostering mother. This phrase is used by almost every institution of higher learning in the world. These are the institutions where minds, young and old, are shaped. The implications here are profound. This is especially true if the antichrist beast is identified with the church at Rome. Then there becomes a double meaning in the use of the word mother in the phrase nourishing mother or Alma Mater. The mother then becomes both the Church and god because of these facts.
1. The Roman Catholic Church is often called the mother church in historical literature and by the church itself. Protestant denominations are viewed by the Roman Catholic Church as children who have erred and strayed from the mother church.
2. An alias of Alma Mater (Cybele) is "Mother of the gods".

Therefore, the church and the pagan god Cybele are both being simultaneously promoted in the single phrase Alma Mater. The "Mother of the gods" and the great whore of Revelation who worships her (see Rev 17:1) both have their name on virtually every educational institution in the world. These are the very institutions where the pastors are educated. As an example, the University of Illinois offers a master's degree in religious studies. As of this writing, there is a picture of the statue of Alma Mater on their web page for that very program. It can be seen here: What kind of nourishment is being received at the teat of these mothers?

Only a Name

Before delving into this section, which will certainly be seen as harsh by some, I would like to make some clarifications. Education is a good thing, and universities and colleges serve a very important purpose in society. In fact, I am really fond of one particular university which will be eluded to in this section. As with any other kind of institution, there are good and there are bad colleges as well as good and bad instructors. As with almost everything else in life, there is also a limit to what is good for us. The Bible gives us a word of caution concerning education to help us recognize there is a danger which comes from being consumed with education.

Ecc 12:12 And further, by these, my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh.

With that said, let us continue.

Some might be tempted to say Alma Mater is simply a name. However, the realty is somewhat more concerning. Paganism is false worship. It was developed by Satan to be a distraction for God's people and to draw us away from the Creator. The institution of higher learning is perhaps the most important element in Satan's bag of tricks. This is where the battle to deceive the next generation takes place. The institutions of higher learning are the battleground where souls are slain through the washing of brains. What is being taught at these universities should be of concern to those seeking only the truth. Something is happening within these institutions which is having a negative impact on the faith of attendees. A Gallup poll from May 2014 found 46% of U.S. high school graduates believe in creation while only 27% of college graduates believe in creation (Newport "U.S."). Those differences are significant and may be explained by the results of a study published in 2005 by the Berkeley electronic press called Politics and Professional Advancement Among College Faculty. The study found being a religiously observant Christian had a negative impact on the career advancement of college faculty, as is seen in the following quote.

"Religiously observant Christians are disadvantaged in their placement in the institutional hierarchy. . . . Thus, when the logic of testing for differential outcomes according to race, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation is applied to ideology and religion, being a conservative, a Republican or a practicing Christian confers a disadvantage in professional advancement greater than any of these other factors" (Rothman, Lichter and Nevitte).

If the instructors in higher education are not religiously observant Christians, neither will their message be Christian. Furthermore, these types of studies use a very broad net to define what is meant by Christian. They encapsulate all manner of self-described Christians. Many of which hold to doctrines which are inconsistent and unharmonious with the Bible, and many of which reject the Bible in whole or in part. This further reduces the chances of a Biblical world view being promoted or even tolerated in the institutions of higher learning. These factors are leading to the indoctrination of students into a different kind of religion within these institutions. This different kind of religion is incompatible with the Bible but is embraced by paganism. For instance, the number of people who believe in pure human evolution with no involvement of God is rising. According to an ongoing Gallup poll, in the year 2000, only 9% of Americans believed in pure evolution. The May 2014 update of the poll showed that number had risen by 10 percentage points in 14 years (Newport "U.S."). Still, only 19% of Americans believe in pure evolution, but that is the only theory being taught in all U.S. public education systems. If the number of people who mix evolution and the Bible (31% according to the Gallup poll) is added to that 19%, the results show half of the population is now willingly submitting to something other than the pure word of God. This growth in anti-creation thinking is only partially the result of the educational institutions.

Today, the mixing of Biblical teaching with evolutionary theory is also seen in the other nourishing mother — the Church at Rome. On October 27, 2014, Pope Francis addressed the Plenary Session of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences at the inauguration of a bust in honor of Pope Benedict XVI. In that address, the Pope embraced a mixture of Biblical and evolutionary ideologies.

"When we read the account of Creation in Genesis we risk imagining that God was a magician, complete with an all powerful magic wand. But that was not so. He created beings and he let them develop according to the internal laws with which He endowed each one, that they might develop, and reach their fullness. . . . And thus Creation has been progressing for centuries and centuries, millennia and millennia, until becoming as we know it today. . . . The Big Bang theory, which is proposed today as the origin of the world, does not contradict the intervention of a divine creator but depends on it. Evolution in nature does not conflict with the notion of Creation, because evolution presupposes the creation of beings who evolve" (Bergoglio "Address").

Cybele's ancient cults would undoubtedly recognize the "Virgin Mary" as their god.

This is not the first time the church at Rome has embraced the theory of evolution. This is only one example of the Roman Catholic Church giving these false teachings its stamp of approval. The so-called mother church is in-line with the instruction in evolutionary theory pouring forth from Alma Maters around the globe. This is also not the only connection between Christianity and Alma Mater.

Mary, the mother of Christ, is perceived in some Christian circles as being an Alma Mater or nourishing mother. While this is not an official title, the connection between Mary and the title Alma Mater is made very clear at times. For example, an audio CD was released in 2009 titled Alma Mater: Music from the Vatican (Benedict). The disc features the voice of Pope Benedict XVI and is dedicated to Mary the mother of Christ. The disc includes the songs Sancta Dei Genitrix (Holy Mother of God), Mater Ecclesiae (Mother of the Church), Auxilium Christianorum (Mary Help of Christians), and Regina Coeli ("Queen of Heaven"). The title Regina Coeli ("Queen of Heaven"), and also a prayer by the same name, attests to the fact the title "Virgin Mary" is simply another title for the "Queen of Heaven." Worship of the "Queen of Heaven" is condemned in the Bible. This is the same title given to Cybele. The "Virgin Mary," who some Christians worship, is Alma Mater who is also known as Cybele. She is not the mother of Christ. Finally, the last song on the CD is titled Magistra Nostra (Our Teacher). Was Mary a teacher? Was this her role in the Bible? No, this was not her role. She was not a teacher; she was the earthly mother of our Lord and Savior. Christ is our teacher (see John 3:2). Who is the great teacher in the pagan world? Isis is the so-called “emblem of supreme wisdom and understanding” in mythology, and we have seen the name Isis is simply another name for Cybele. There is no doubt; this album honors Cybele through the names and characteristics of her aliases: Alma Mater, "Mother of the gods," "Queen of Heaven," and Isis.

We have now seen two current instances where the pinnacle of leadership in the modern Roman Catholic Church is following after the example of the fourth century church at Rome by embracing secular ideas and pagan practices and bringing those ideas and practices into the church.
1. Pope Francis embraced evolution.
2. Pope Benedict XVI sings praises to the “Queen of Heaven.”
Who is this church who teaches people to worship Cybele and combine paganism with the worship of our Lord and Savior?


If the church at Rome and these institutions of higher learning are both being used by Satan to draw people toward a false system of worship involving Cybele, then the teachings of the Alma Maters around the world can be expected to coincide with the teachings of the Papacy. The teachings of these institutions and the Roman church do indeed coincide both in symbolism and substance. The higher education institutions are most often very much religious institutions whether they claim to be or not. Image showing the steeples at a university.The steeples in this image are not from a traditionally recognized church; they are from a small outlying branch of a state university in the Bible belt. This university offers very few classes in traditional religious studies, but make no mistake, this is a church in every sense of the word. I signed up for a class in world civilization at this campus. The first 30 minutes of the first day of class undermined the entire teaching of the Bible. The very first words I wrote in my notes for the class were "Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) 2.5 Million - 10,000 B.C." There was no explanation of how these numbers were arrived at, but they obviously fall well outside of the timeline allowed for in the Biblical creation model. Most of my fellow students were fairly recent high school graduates who had only been taught evolution in school. Some did not even realize they had been taught evolution in school. But, if asked how old the earth is, their answer reflected the timeline of the evolutionary model. Many students accept these ages without question. Furthermore, if students are to perform at their academic best, they will have to exchange their knowledge of creation for mythical ideas concerning the evolutionary timeline. For example, one test in this class asked when the first humans entered the American continent. The answer the instructor was looking for was, "about 15,000 years ago." This is, of course, more than double the time the earth has existed according to the Bible. I wanted to demonstrate I knew the answer the instructor was looking for without compromising what I knew to be true. Therefore, I did not answer the multiple choice question. However, I did make a note next to the question on the answer sheet. In that note, I demonstrated I knew the answer the instructor was looking for was 15,000 years. I also stated the event could not have taken place more than 6,000 years ago according to the Bible. This did not help me in the slightest. The answer was still marked as incorrect. In my particular case, the difference in grades was inconsequential. Nevertheless, this may not be the case with a student who is hovering at the pass-fail line or one who is in a class where more questions are based upon the evolutionary timeline. I am blessed I can choose classes which do not require me to compromise my faith in order to perform well academically. Many other students face a much different reality because of the coursework required by their chosen career field. Institutions of higher learning are teaching philosophical theory as fact in a broad range of subjects. In this case, the situation took place in a world civilization class which is a history class. However, there is an anti-creation and anti-Christian spirit which permeates the classrooms of many differing subjects at this school. Some of the assignments appear to be specifically designed to compel the students to question their belief in God. While the Bible is sometimes misquoted and misinterpreted by the instructors at this school, the Christmas tree is welcome. A two story decorated tree, complete with angel top, adorns the main lobby of the administration building at Christmas time. There is also a permanent but hidden Christmas tree at this campus. This Christmas tree, along with other "good luck" trinkets, was permanently sealed in the false chimney of one of the buildings by school administrators when the building was being constructed. The visible tree at Christmas time gives the appearance of the school accepting God if one equates Christmas with Christianity. However, a vastly different conclusion will be revealed if one considers the following facts.
1. Christmas is a pagan holiday.
2. A Christmas tree was included with "good luck" trinkets in the superstitious chimney ritual.
3. The curriculum sometimes appears to be designed to make students question the reality of God.
4. The timeline associated with the theory of evolution is embraced, while the Biblical creation timeline is rejected.
5. The theory of evolution is the only theory put forth in science and biology classes.

This is the same institution which I said I was fond of at the beginning of this section. One might reasonably ask how I could be so fond of this institution after revealing the above observations. This is a fair question and one I would like to address. We all have good and bad qualities. If I were judged solely upon my not-so-good qualities, I am certain neither God, nor man, nor beast, would see a solitary purpose for my existence. My only hope with God is His grace. My only hope with my fellow man is this: whatever good is observed of me, will blanket my mountain of faults. Therefore, I will not judge this institution based only upon what I perceive as faults but on the whole. This institution has a mountain of good to cover the faults I have revealed. While Christ is negated by some. He is lifted up by others at the university. While un-Godly behavior is supported by some, I have also witnessed more Christ-like behavior on a daily basis at this university than is common within the walls of many houses of worship. Differing religious ideologies are discussed openly and respectfully at this institution. I have found both the staff and the students at this university to be very tolerant of religious ideas which are foreign to them. I have been forthright about the Sabbath, the Holy days, creation, and the pagan nature of Christmas in my interactions with students and staff at this university. Not once, has an unkind word been spoken in return. In fact, the faculty has, without exception, been supportive and accommodating when I required time away from class to celebrate God’s Holy days. There is a peaceful spirit on this campus, and I’m grateful to have the opportunity to learn at this institution. Educational institutions are no different than anything else in life. We must internalize the good and discard the bad.

Philosophy vs Science

Very often in today's world, good science and facts are not only overlooked but are scorned in favor of philosophy. This has long been a problem in the world. For instance, in Macrobius' Saturnalia, the science of a physician is undermined rather rudely by philosophical view in a discussion which takes place in book 7. The physician tells about the function of the epiglottis and then ends his statement by saying "it would have been better for the prince of all philosophers [Plato] to avoid matters alien to him than to pronounce on things unfamiliar to him." Plato was of the opinion solid food was directed to the stomach while liquid drinks went into the lungs (Plato 259, 341). The following quote gives the reply to that statement.

"At this, Eustathius said, with a bit more heat than usual, I counted you no less a philosopher than a physician, Dysarius, but now you seem to consign to oblivion a fact repeated and believed as a matter of universal consensus, that philosophy is the very essence of all arts and disciplines. Now, with the brazenness of a parricide, medicine launches an attack upon it, since philosophy is considered the more reverend when it treats the rational side of things, which is to say, incorporeal matters, and lowers itself when it treats of physics which is to say the divine bodies of the heavens and the stars. But medicine is the lowest dregs of the physical side of things, a system concerned with bodies of clay and earth. But why did I use the word 'system,' when medicine is more the realm of guesswork than system? So an art that works by conjecture on filthy flesh has the nerve to mount a charge against philosophy, which deals with incorporeal and truly divine matters according to a reliable system. But lest this general defense seem to avoid the specific topic of the lung, hear the rationale that Plato's majestic genius followed. The epiglôttis, which you mention, is nature's device for covering and opening, in regular alternation, the paths of food and drink, to convey the former to the stomach while the lung receives the latter" (Macrobius vol. III 291-93).

In his support of philosophy, Eustathius goes on to uphold the view of Plato with arguments such as these.
• Food which entered the lung would be turned into juice and passed over to the "seat of digestion."
• If the artêria is severed, drink cannot be swallowed.
• People with an ailing lung, burn with extreme thirst, and this would not happen if the lung were not drink's proper repository.
• Creatures without lungs do not drink.
• If both food and drink were deposited into the stomach, there would be no use for the bladder.
• The stomach directs waste to the intestine, the lung directs waste to the bladder.
• No traces of food, such as color or odor are found in urine.

The absurd list goes on as philosophy is judged greater than science. This quote shows the hostility with which philosophy met science back then. The situation is the same today. Creation science is ridiculed and scorned while the philosophy of evolution is promoted almost universally. One will find the task of getting an education in creation science today all but impossible even though the better scientific data supports Biblical creation.

Evolution, with its roots in pagan belief, is being propped up against the teachings of God in the institutions of higher learning today. The Alma Mater is one of the largest battle grounds where the war between truth and fiction, between good and evil, is being waged. The minds of the population are being swayed by means of pagan philosophy mixed with some truth. This seems to be a recurring theme in Satan's bag of tricks. By mixing truth with error, good with evil, the masses are deceived. The same trick which worked in the Garden of Eden is working still to this day. Notice, the tree from which Adam and Eve ate was called the tree of knowledge of both good and evil. This is the same mix we see driving droves from Christ today. Take a look at what Eve thought about the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

Gen 3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

As Eve desired a mixture of good and evil knowledge in the Garden of Eden, so also the love of man's wisdom, which often includes evil, is the very foundation of philosophy. The word philosophy comes from the Greek word philosophia which means love of wisdom. God's people must not seek out man's wisdom without regard for what is good and what is evil. One must be careful to accept that which is good and reject that which is evil. God's people must be aware of this fact: when they enter schools, colleges, or universities, these institutions are declared to be their Alma Mater or "nourishing mother." One may not rationally dispute the fact Alma Mater is simply another name for the pagan deity Cybele, and she is the emblem of supreme wisdom and understanding in the pagan world. We must not forget Satan is behind paganism, and he is using evil teachings and traditions to further his cause. As the phrase Alma Mater immediately brings to mind schools, colleges, and universities, the steeples on these institutions should also serve as warning signs — there is a religious component to what is being taught there. Satan is intertwining himself in the fabric of modern society. To do this, he is using the holidays and the very educational institutions God's people attend. The answer to the problem is not to abandon education. The answer to the problem is to expose errors and ensure what is being taught is the pure truth. This involves ensuring good is not mixed with evil. Christian parents must seek out Christian teachers who are willing to stand firm on the word of God. This may involve pulling children from the public education system and enrolling them in private institutions. Christian teachers must teach the truth of creation while dispelling the myth of evolution. Christian teachers in the public school system must, at times, surely find the curriculum at odds with the truth. The current situation dictates if teachers refuse to teach lies they will be unable to teach many science and history classes in the public school system. Therefore, those classes are only taught by people willing to promote evolutionary ideology. What can we expect the children to believe then? At best, we can expect them to believe a combination of truth and lie. This is exactly how evil creeps in and mingles with good in the minds of God's people. The people of God have been guilty of combining good with evil for generation after generation which has led to people worshiping everything from the sun to stones.

Stone Worship

Now is the time to take a closer look at the black stone introduced in the quote from the book titled Grecian and Roman Mythology. Here again is part of that quote.

"The archetype of Cybele was likewise the great productive power that gives rise to all formations. . . . In the temple of the great mother of life, at Pessinus in Galatia, a small stone of a blackish color, and rough, irregular surface, represented the Alma Mater" (Dwight 148).

This quote shows Cybele was represented in Galatia (modern Turkey), by a small, black stone with a rough, irregular surface. There are a few different myths which could have led to this pagan deity being associated with a stone.
1. Some sources say she was born of a stone.
2. According to pagan belief, Rhea (Cybele), who was tired of being frequently pregnant but without child because of Saturn's actions, replaced the newborn Jupiter with a stone concealed in clothing. Saturn was said to have eaten the stone thinking it was Jupiter.
3. Ovid's Fasti also reveals the Phrygian boy named Attis who Cybele loved, castrated and killed himself with a sharp stone. This myth will be examined in more detail later in this chapter.

There are numerous myths involving Cybele, or one of her aliases, and a stone. One of these myths involving a stone, or perhaps another similar one, could be why Cybele was, and still is, frequently represented by a stone.

Throughout history, many stones have been venerated and worshiped. The Bible is ripe with condemnations of this practice and, in several places, makes clear God is the archetype and the rock is the impersonator. This idea is evident in these verses from Deuteronomy.

Deu 32:17 They sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that came newly up, whom your fathers feared not.
Deu 32:18 Of the Rock that begat thee thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee.

Stones still play a very important religious role in cultures around the world. There is a small, black stone with irregular surface which is today polished by the lips of millions of admirers. Most people who kiss this stone say they are not worshiping it. One can only look at the ceremony surrounding this stone and compare it with scripture. Then each person must determine if this stone should be part of their religious activities. This stone is simply called the Black Stone and has a long history in Saudi Arabia.

"You laugh because in ancient times the Persians worshipped rivers as is told in the writings which hand down [these things] to memory; the Arabians an unshapen stone; the Scythian nations a sabre; the Thespians a branch instead of Cinxia; the Icarians an unhewn log instead of Diana; the people of Pessinus a flint instead of the mother of the gods; the Romans a spear instead of Mars, as the muses of Varro point out; and, before they were acquainted with the statuary's art the Samians a plank instead of Juno" (Arnobius 283).

This quote reveals the Arabians worshiped an "unshapen stone," and the people of Pessinus worshiped "a flint" in place of the "Mother of the gods." The "Mother of the gods" has already been shown to be another name for Cybele. The Bible states there is no rock like God.

1Sa 2:2 There is none holy as the LORD: for there is none beside thee: neither is there any rock like our God.

The stone which the Arabians, in the above quote, are said to have worshiped is located in the south-eastern corner stone of the Kaaba (Ka‘bah) temple at Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Keep in mind, the people who visit this stone say they are not worshiping the stone. The outsiders who have looked upon the religious rites concerning the stone are the ones who have long viewed those rites as worshiping the stone. The Kaaba, which the Black Stone helps make up the cornerstone of, is fairly large, but the actual black stone is quite small. The stone has been broken in attacks many times throughout history, and it is now made up of eight small pieces cemented together. The exposed face measures only about eight inches by six inches. The stone is located about four and a half feet from the ground, and it is surrounded by a silver frame which resembles the exterior female genitalia in shape. The black stone is said to have originally been white when it was sent to earth from paradise. According to Muslim beliefs, the sins of those who have touched the stone turned it black. Muslim tradition holds the stone will have two eyes and a tongue on resurrection day when it will testify in favor of those who have touched it in sincerity. Touching the stone is believed to be one of the ways Allah atones for sins. There are many sources of information concerning the traditions of the black stone in Islam. Several of those sources relate the traditions using the exact same wording. The following quote is from a book using phrasing which appears to be generally accepted within the Muslim faith. In the book, each statement is numbered and is followed by one or more sources corroborating the statement.

"There are a number of ahaadeeth etc. about the Black Stone which we will quote for our brother so that he may learn from them.
1. The Black Stone was sent down by Allaah to this earth from Paradise.
2. The Stone was whiter than milk, but the sins of the sons of Adam made it black.
3. The Black Stone will come forth on the Day of Resurrection and will testify in favour of those who touched it in truth.
4. Touching, kissing or pointing to the Black Stone – this is the first thing to be done when starting Tawaaf, whether it is for Hajj or ‘Umrah, or voluntary Tawaaf.
5. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) kissed the Black Stone, and his ummah followed his lead in doing so.
6. If a person is unable to kiss the Stone, he should touch it with his hand or something else, then he can kiss the thing with which he touched it.
7. If a person is unable to do the above, then he can point to it with his hand and say “Allaahu akbar”.
8. Touching the Stone is one of the things by means of which Allaah expiates for sins"
(Abdul-Rahman 348-51).

Whether a person's thoughts are directed toward a stone representing Cybele or a cross representing Christ, the result is the same.

As the people who flock to this stone have their corner stone, our Bible tells us we have a great corner stone. Our corner stone is Christ.

Eph 2:20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;

As they hold their corner stone to be precious, so we hold our corner stone to be precious.

1Pe 2:6 Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.
1Pe 2:7 Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner,
1Pe 2:8 And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.

As the Muslims believe their stone was once white, so we are looking forward to a white stone.

Rev 2:17 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.

As they believe their stone will plead for them on resurrection day, we also believe we have an advocate in Christ.

1Jn 2:1 My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:

We need to be understanding of these similarities, but we must also realize their rock is not our Rock. Scripture is clear on this issue.

Deu 32:31 For their rock is not as our Rock, even our enemies themselves being judges.
Deu 32:32 For their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah: their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are bitter:
Deu 32:33 Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps.
Deu 32:34 Is not this laid up in store with me, and sealed up among my treasures?
Deu 32:35 To me belongeth vengeance, and recompence; their foot shall slide in due time: for the day of their calamity is at hand, and the things that shall come upon them make haste.
Deu 32:36 For the LORD shall judge his people, and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth that their power is gone, and there is none shut up, or left.
Deu 32:37 And he shall say, Where are their gods, their rock in whom they trusted,
Deu 32:38 Which did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink offerings? let them rise up and help you, and be your protection.
Deu 32:39 See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god with me: I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand.

As odd as this may sound, the idea of worshiping a stone with an irregular surface may have origins in text still found in our Bibles. The altars in the Old Testament were sometimes made of stone. When they were constructed of stone, the Bible tells us the stone was not shaped or hewn.

Exo 20:25 And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it.

The idea behind building the altar out of un-hewn stone was most likely to prevent the altar itself from becoming an object of worship. However, man does not need a shape to satisfy his need for worshiping material objects. Even a small, black stone with a rough and irregular surface will do. The people of God have long misdirected their affections for God onto material objects. For Islam, one misdirection is the stone; for Christians, the misdirections are any number of things such as the cross or the Christmas tree. This need of mankind to direct his thoughts and prayers toward a physical object plays right into Satan's plans. We must remember all false worship is of Satan. So, whether a person's thoughts are directed toward a stone representing Cybele or a cross representing Christ, the result is the same.

The Kiss

This black stone is probably most famous for being kissed by millions upon millions of people. Many Muslims believe they must travel at least once in their lifetime to Mecca to see this black stone, and most have hopes of kissing it. Here is a quote which reveals why they kiss the stone.

Book 007, Number 2912:
Salim narrated on the authority of his father (Allah be pleased with him) that 'Umar b. al-Khattib (Allah be pleased with him) kissed (the Black Stone) and then said: By Allah, I know that you are a stone and if I were not to see Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) kissing you, I would not have kissed you. Harun said in his narration: A hadith like this has been transmitted to me by Zaid b. Aslam on the authority of his father Aslam. . . . 

Book 007, Number 2914: Abdullah b. Sarjis reported: I saw the bald one, i. e. 'Umar b. Khattib (Allah be pleased with him). kissing the Stone and saying: By Allah. I am kissing with full consciousness of the fact that you are a stone and that you can neither do any harm nor good; and if I had not seen Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) kissing you. I would not have kissed you. The rest of the hadith is the same"

These quotes show the people were speaking to the stone. In the second account shown here, the person states he understands the stone "can neither do any harm nor good." Still he kisses the stone and he speaks to the stone. The quote from Characteristics of the Romish Church by B. Willard-Archer quoted earlier states the Jews claimed they only worshiped the "Queen of Heaven" because their fathers had. The Muslims in the above quote say they kiss the black stone at the Kaaba only because they saw Mohammad kissing it. One must always be careful when following tradition or when doing something simply because someone else does it. If Muhammad is the false prophet, then all of the doctrine which is based upon his words and actions is also false. How much error has been introduced by the actions of this one man? The black stone was being worshiped long before Muhammad walked the earth. It was already there for him to kiss. Many sources give Muhammad credit with helping to replace the stone in about 605 A.D., but these same sources agree this took place when the temple was being reconstructed.

When people visit the Kaaba at Mecca, they circumnavigate (walk around) the temple seven times. The corner holding the black stone marks the starting and ending point of each pass. The procession of people making their journey around the Kaaba is continuous, twenty-four hours a day. There are live streaming video feeds on the internet, and also on television stations, which show this procession. There are always large numbers of people walking in circles around the Kaaba day and night. When the time comes to clean the floors and the base around the temple, guards come out and direct the flow of people around the workers. A small convoy of more than a half dozen floor cleaning machines are driven by some of the workers. The remaining crew begins to clean the base of the temple which is marred by countless admiring hands every day. These people do not believe they are worshiping this stone. However, to the outsider, this appears to be nothing less than worship of a stone. Error is much easier to recognize from afar; the errors others make are always easier to see than the errors we make. Most people find the task of seeing their own offenses very difficult. Many customs which Christians engage in are seen by outsiders as purely pagan. When this happens, we need to take a careful look at what we are doing. What we find, may be hard to swallow. Before we condemn Muslims for kissing the black stone, we should consider our own acts. Of a surety, Christians too kiss religious objects.

The Kaaba

Image showing the Kaaba

As already stated, the black stone is located in a cornerstone of the Kaaba. The Kaaba is a forty-three-foot-high, cube-shaped shrine located in Saudi Arabia. It is covered with a black silk and gold covering which can be seen in this image. The gold is text from the Quran embroidered onto the covering. Many Muslims believe Adam built the Kaaba as an altar to Allah, and Abraham later rebuilt it. The Kaaba is the most sacred site in Islam.

"Kaaba 1. a cube-shaped building in Mecca, the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine, into which is built the black stone believed to have been given by Gabriel to Abraham. Muslims turn in its direction when praying" ("Kaaba").

The black rock in the corner stone is not the only connection between the Kaaba and Cybele. The shape of the Kaaba itself is after the manner of this goddess. The next quote shows some attribute the origins of the name Cybele to the word cube.

"This deity had a variety of names besides that of Cybele, under which she is most generally known, and which she obtained from Mount Cybelus, in Phrygia, where sacrifices to her were first instituted; though others derive the word Cybele from a Cube, because the cube, or die; which is a body every way square, was dedicated to her by the ancients" (Bell 205).

As already shown, the Megalesia was held in honor of Cybele in the month of April. The Megalesia was an eight-day celebration. The next quote divulges it was an eight-day celebration because the number eight is the first cubic number, and the cube is sacred to Cybele.

"II Nones April—April 4.
The Megalesian Games begin and last for eight days, eight being the first Cubic Number, and therefore appropriate to the Cybelëian, or the Cubic Goddess; for Cybele was the Divinity who presided over square or cubic stone building"
(Ovid 214).

Image from the Chronography of 354 showing the dice being thrown
Image of calendar from Chronography of 354
Modified to highlight dice (The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 6).

The above quotes affirm the cube or the die was dedicated to Cybele in ancient times. The die is often mentioned in reference to Cybele because of its cube shape. Remember also, gambling with dice was a favorite activity among those who celebrated the Saturnalia. This is likely because the Opalia, celebrated in honor of Ops (Cybele), was held during the Saturnalia. There is an image of a person gambling with dice on the illustration of the December calendar portion of the Chronography of 354. The dice and the hand throwing them are highlighted for clarity here in this copy of that image. The image also shows a small tower on the table with the dice. The tower was also symbolic of Cybele because she was credited with first giving towers to the cities.

The Kaaba is believed by Muslims to be an altar to Allah. Therefore, the Kaaba is sometimes referred to as the House of Allah. One of the five pillars of Islam requires every Muslim visit the Kaaba at least once during their lifetime if possible. This pilgrimage to the Kaaba is called the hajj. The hajj incorporates a few different acts related to the pilgrimage such as circumnavigating the building seven times in a counter-clockwise direction. The following quote is from The Book of the pilgrimage. This book is used by people of the Islamic faith to help them understand the rules for the hajj. There are many rules governing everything from dress, to what is recited on the return journey. This quote is from the introduction of the book and gives additional details on how the Kaaba is believed by Muslims to have become part of their religious operations.

"The Book of Pilgrimage (Kitab Al-Hajj)
The word Hajj means, literally, repairing to a place for the sake of visit (al-qasd li-ziyarah), and in the terminology of the Islamic Shari'ah, it implies the repairing to Bait-Allah (the house of Allah) to observe the necessary devotion (iqamat-an-li-nusuk) Bait-Allah is one of the names by which the Ka'ba is called.

Hajj is not a new institution which Islam has introduced in its Shari'ah. This institution is as old as the Ka'ba itself which is called in the Holy Qur'an to be' the first House of Divine Worship appointed for men' (iii. 95). This verse of the Holy Qur'an corroborates the hadith which tells us that the Ka'ba was first built by Adam, the first man upon the earth. It was later on rebuilt by Hadrat Ibrahim and his illustrious son Hadrat Isma'il (peace be upon both of them). And when Ibrahim and Isma'al raised the foundations of the house, they said:' Our Lord! accept from us' (ii. 127). An earlier revelation makes it clear that the Ka'ba was already there when Hadrat Ibrahim left Hadrat Isma'il in the wilderness of Arabia:' Our Lord! I have settled a part of my offspring in a valley unproductive of fruit near Thy sacred House' (xiv. 37).

The whole ceremony of Hajj is commemorative of Hadrat Ibrahim and his family's acts of devotion to God Almighty. This shows that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) did not innovate this institution but purged it of all evil practices and made it an obligatory act of piety by which one can develop God-consciousness"

There can be no doubt as to the importance placed upon the Kaaba and the black stone by Muslims today. This large black cube is a crucial element in the religious operations of today's Islam. The black rock in the corner stone of the Kaaba is embedded into the very fabric of Islamic faith as surely as the gold Quranic text is embroidered into the silk covering of this shrine. However, one can be certain the black stone is a remnant of Cybelean worship. The "Queen of Heaven" is indiscriminate in luring people of all faiths into her web of deceit. Satan has used Cybele and her beloved Attis to travel almost the entire length of human history deceiving anyone and everyone along the way. Now, consideration will be given to Satan's use of Attis in the religious affairs of people in the past and present.


One of the best sources of information concerning Attis is the fourth book of Ovid's Fasti. Ovid does a very good job of painting a picture of the myths surrounding Attis. This next quote starts in the middle of a conversation where Erato (Cybele's Niece) is explaining the origins of Cybele's characteristics.

~ Ovid's Fasti ~

"The cause then further state,
That makes her train their limbs thus mutilate. 330
Soon as the question from my lips could fly,
Thus the Pierian Goddess made reply :—

A beauteous youth, pride of each Phrygian grove,
Enthralled the Tower-crowned Goddess with chaste love.
Him she desired her chosen Priest to be,
And asked to vow perpetual chastity.
He gave his plighted faith, and thus he spake,
May my first trespass be the last I make!
Too soon did Sagaris his heart estrange;
He fell;—the wrathful Goddess sought revenge;
With blows the Naiad in her Tree she slew,—
Conjoined by fate the Tree and Naiad grew:—
The helpless Nymph beneath the blows expired;
The guilty youth, with unknown madness fired,
Fearing the roof would crush his nuptial bed,
Swiftly to Dindymos' high summits fled.
Oh spare those whips, those torches! would he cry,
And swear the Gods of Palestine were nigh.

With the sharp flint his ivory breast he tears,
And in the dust defiles his flowing hairs, 350
The voice was,—it is just! my fault I own;
Oh, that these wounds might former guilt atone!
Perish the power to which my crime I owe!
Furious he cried, and struck the fatal blow.
The strange example with contagion spread,
And unmanned priests, since then, these rites have led.
Such were the words in which the Queen of Song
Revealed the story of this frantic throng"
(Ovid 149-50).

The quote begins with Erato being asked why Cybele's train mutilate themselves. The train, spoken of here, is a reference to a procession of Cybele's worshippers which would have included her priests. These are the "unmanly" men, mentioned earlier, which the words of Ovid tell us were part of a very loud procession during the Megalesia. The priestly procession would crash their cymbals, beat their drums, and shout as they made their way through the streets carrying an effigy of Cybele. They would also flog themselves with whips and knives which is the mutilation spoken of here. These men also castrated themselves, but this did not take place during the loud and bloody procession specifically referenced here. The Pierian goddess (Erato) begins her explanation by describing how Attis was a beautiful young boy who was the pride of the Phrygian grove. Cybele is said to have been enthralled with young Attis in a pure, loving, and sexually abstinent manner. One should note some sources portray Attis as being the son of Cybele. Regardless of their exact relationship, Cybele wanted Attis to be her priest. She asked Attis to take a vow of celibacy which he did. In this vow, Attis stated if he broke his vow of celibacy, his punishment should include him being incapable of committing a further transgression. Soon after making this vow, Attis fell in love with a nymph named Sagaritis. In mythology, a nymph is a spirit of nature which usually inhabits rivers or forests. In this case, Sagaritis was a sort of tree spirit. The idea of a tree having a spirit is a foreign concept to the Christian mind, but this is a very familiar concept to those who worship plants. The words of Ovid tell us Attis married Sagaritis and broke his vow to Cybele. Cybele then became very angry and killed Sagaritis by wounding a tree in which the nymph's life was intertwined. Ovid reveals Attis was driven mad and fled to the summit of Mount Dindymos, which is located in modern day Turkey. There, Attis used a sharp flint to make cuts in his chest. He put dirt in his hair, and he proclaimed the ongoing punishment as just because he was at fault for breaking his vow to Cybele. The words of Ovid then explain Attis said his self-mutilation was an attempt to atone for his guilt. Attis continued the attempt at atonement by castrating himself, and this is the wound which killed him. The mythological Erato then proposes the example of self-mutilation spread among the priest of Cybele. These priest castrated and cut themselves in religious rituals designed to imitate Attis and honor Cybele. Today, there are groups in Islam and Christianity who mutilate themselves with whips, knives, and other objects during bloody religious processions. These religious rituals are likely the remnants of Cybelean worship. Our Bible tells us not to engage in these types of activities in at least three different places. Here is one of those verses.

Lev 19:28 Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you: I am the LORD.

The portion of Ovid's Fasti just examined reveals the life of Sagaritis was said to be intertwined with a tree. There are also some sources which say Attis killed himself beneath a Pine tree. Still other sources say Zeus declared the Pine tree forever sacred in honor of Cybele because she was mourning the loss of Attis. Whatever the cause, the Pine tree was considered sacred by the cult of Cybele, and Attis was viewed as a rejuvenating power of vegetation. This rejuvenating power of both Attis and Cybele was not limited to vegetation. They were both viewed as saviors with the ability to give their worshippers a better life. This is revealed in the next quote.

"The public celebrations of the cult of Attis and the Magna Mater in March indicate a belief in the resurrection of the god and associate his return with that of springtime vegetation. The return of Attis evidences his own salvation; it also conveyed the promise of a good harvest to his followers or, more metaphorically, the promise of a happier life with the arrival of spring. So Attis and Cybele were worshiped as saviors, that is, as deities who could assure their followers a favorable future life in this world" (Salzman 167).

This quote makes clear these pagan deities were at times viewed as saviors and, as such, a direct replacement for Christ.

According to mythology, the rejuvenating power of Attis was also represented in the daily cycle of the sun. Pagan tradition equates the path of the sun with the stages of human life. For example, the morning is equated with a baby, mid-day with an adult, and the evening with an old man. Attis was shown earlier to have been incorporated into sun worship. Here, one may identify a role he played according to the traditions of sun worship.

"The stars were also the ghosts of deities who died daily. When the sun perished as an old man at evening, it rose in the heavens as Orion, or went out and in among the stars as the shepherd of the flock, Jupiter, the planet of Merodach in Babylonia, and Attis in Asia Minor. The flock was the group of heavenly spirits invisible by day, the 'host of heaven'—manifestations or ghosts of the emissaries of the controlling power or powers" (Mackenzie 305).

Here again, language normally used in reference to Christ is being applied to Attis. In the role of "shepherd of the flock," the mythological Attis appears to have been purposefully invented to compete for space in the mind of those who would worship Christ. Thanks to Ovid's Fasti and these other sources, one can have a good idea of the roles Attis plays in Mythology. By gaining a little more knowledge about this mythological being, we will be able to find him in the Bible as well.

Weeping for Tammuz

As with Cybele, Attis has been known by many different aliases. One of the names Attis was known by is Tammuz which is shown in the next quote.

"Tammuz is the name of the Babylonian god who corresponds to the Egyptian Osiris, the Phoenician and Greek Adonis, the Phrygian Attis, and other well known types of the dying son of Mother Earth" (Langdon 1).

Attis and Tammuz are one and the same pagan deity, and Tammuz is a name by which one will find Attis referenced in the Holy Bible. The following verses show how the rituals associated with Tammuz are thought of by God.

Eze 8:13 He said also unto me, Turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations that they do.
Eze 8:14 Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the LORD'S house which was toward the north; and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz.

These verses clearly show God calls these rituals abominations. This form of false worship was so prevalent the Bible specifically mentions this pagan deity by name. Remarkably, the fourth month in the modern Jewish calendar is still called Tammuz after this pagan deity which is so strongly condemned in the Bible. The experts of the modern era agree Tammuz was one of the most popular pagan deities in the past. This fact is revealed in the next quote.

"Among the gods of Babylonia none achieved wider and more enduring fame than Tammuz, who was loved by Ishtar, the amorous Queen of Heaven—the beautiful youth who died and was mourned for and came to life again. He does not figure by his popular name in any of the city pantheons, but from the earliest times of which we have knowledge until the passing of Babylonian civilization, he played a prominent part in the religious life of the people" (Mackenzie 81).

Besides confirming how popular Tammuz was, this quote also equates the "Queen of Heaven" with Ishtar. The title "Queen of Heaven" has already been shown to be an alias for Cybele. Mr. Mackenzie confirms this connection again in perfect clarity later in the same book.

"While in Phrygia she was best known as Cybele, mother of Attis, who links with Ishtar as mother and wife of Tammuz" (Mackenzie 267).

The name Ishtar can now be added to the chart of aliases for Cybele.

Aliases of CybeleSpouseBrother
Alma MaterEstiaIsisMother of the godsQueen of HeavenSaturnSaturn
AstroarcheFatuaMagna DeorumMygdoniaRhea
Berecynthia MaterFaunaMagna PalesMylitta
Bona DeaGalliMaterOps
Dindyme or DindymeneIdaea MaterMelechetPasithea
Elder VestaIshtarMother EarthPessinuntia

The Bible uses the phrase "weeping for Tammuz" to describe some of the rituals associated with Cybele and Attis. Those Bible verses also describe a different scenario than what has been described in reference to Attis so far here. There were two different aspects to the mourning which took place in these cults.
1. There were the violent, noisy, and bloody rituals performed by the male priest of Cybele. These rituals were more reflective of Attis and are very similar to the rituals now performed by some people of the Islamic faith.
2. There was also a more subdued ritual reserved for women like Cybele's vestal virgins which was more reflective of Cybele. This was a form of sympathizing with Cybele over the loss of Attis. In this case, the women mourned with tears rather than self-mutilation. This is the type of mourning seen taking place in some Christian sects today. This is the basis for the tales about weeping statues of the "Virgin Mary." This is also the type of mourning being described in the book of Ezekiel which states "there sat women weeping for Tammuz."

Both of these types of mourning revolve around the same pagan deities. One is performed by men and fits with a stereotypical male emotional state of causing the death of a lover. The other is performed by women and fits with the stereotypical female emotional state of a grieving mother. One can go to the book titled A Dictionary of Religion and Ethics to confirm these two aspects of the rituals associated with Cybele and Attis.

"IV. Syrian and Babylonian Mysteries — A mother-goddess similar in many respects to the Greek Demeter and the Phrygian Cybele was prominent also in Syria. She appears under different names, eg., Ashtart, Aphrodite, Atargatis, 'Syrian Goddess,' but the cult always exhibits those mystic orgiastic features that characterize the worship of Cybele. Frequently there is associated with her also a youthful male divinity, about whose death and resurrection the ceremonies and myths of the cult center. At least in some of their aspects these Syrian religions have Babylonian antecedents in the ceremonies of the well-known Ishtar and Tammuz, the former figuring as a weeping mother and the latter as a dying and rising son or consort. His sufferings and triumph were celebrated at a yearly festival where hymns of lamentation were sung, and probably also some sort of mystic pantomime was staged as a feature of the rites" (Mathews 301).

Image showing a man flagellating himself
Man flagellating himself.

Both types of mourning are practiced in certain sects of Islam and Christianity to this day. While Shi'ite men of the Islamic faith are more commonly observed flagellating themselves on the Day of Ashura, this also happens in Christianity during Easter celebrations around the world. Men will sometimes flagellate themselves with whips, chains, or other devices. The man seen here holds a cross while repeatedly striking his chest. The pagan deity Attis continues to be a stumbling block for those who claim to follow the God of Abraham. The rituals associated with this worship are a counterfeit form of worship which still draws people away from the one true God. The rituals associated with Cybele and Attis entered Christianity mainly through Rome. To learn how this merging of Christianity and paganism took place, one can start at a point in time when a stone representing Cybele was brought to Rome.

Cybele Comes to Rome

Cybele made a very ceremonious entry into the city of Rome on April 12th, 204 B.C. The small idol which has proven to be a major distraction to several different groups of people had found its way into the hearts of the Roman people. The Romans made a concentrated effort to transport her to Rome as alluded to in this next quote.

"The Goddess whom the Romans brought with such ceremony from so great a distance, (for according to Ovid they must have gone as far as the Euxine Sea,) was simply a dark black Stone, of an irregular shape, with projecting points, which had been long worshipped at Pessinus in Galatia, the City of the Cube, Pessos being Greek for a Cube. The worship of these Stones is traced in the Palladium of Troy, in the Black Stone of the Arabian Caaba, and in the Scottish Fatal Stone of Scone" (Ovid 214).

Even in Rome, Cybele was at times represented by an irregular shaped, black stone, and she was also associated with the cube, precisely as she is in Islam.

The particulars surrounding Cybele entering Rome are recorded in the 29th book of Livy’s The History of Rome. The scenario takes place during the second of three wars between Rome and Carthage called the Punic wars. The main Carthaginian general in the second Punic war was named Hannibal. Hannibal had been raised on the battlefield of the first Punic war by his father Hamilcar Barca. His father had raised him for the sole purpose of having him lay waste to Italy. History records a severe and mutual hatred between the Romans and the Carthaginians. When Hannibal was only nine years old, he was pleading with his father to take him on a conquest into Spain. Hannibal's father led the boy to the sacrificial altar and had him place his hand on the sacrificial victim while swearing he would show himself to be an enemy of Rome as soon as he was able. The hatred went both ways. Roman Senator Cato ended every speech with the words "Carthage must be destroyed" (Morris 216). The second Punic war broke out after Rome encouraged one of the Carthaginian allies in Spain to revolt. Hannibal marched out of Iberia and into Italy at the beginning of the second Punic war by crossing the Pyrenees and the Alps with an army of around 40,000 men and a few dozen war elephants. He inflicted a series of dramatic defeats upon the Romans. Hannibal's forces destroyed an entire Roman army of 40,000 men at the Battle of Cannae in 216 B.C. Hannibal marched his men up and down the length of Italy laying waste to the countryside for fourteen years. He was within striking distance of the capital of Italy on at least two occasions. The second time, he was driven from the battlefield at the very gates of Rome by severe hail storms which popped up at the precise moment of attack on two consecutive days. For the most part, Rome fought the battles of the war on foreign soil while Hannibal pillaged their homeland. Later in the war, Rome began to experience some dramatic victories of their own which demoralized the Carthaginians. Roman forces killed 56,000 men led by Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal at Metaurus. The Romans decapitated Hasdrubal's body after the battle and carried the head with them as they marched south. They tossed the head in front of Hannibal's outpost when they arrived there. Rome expelled Carthaginian forces from much of Spain and conducted a successful raiding party on the Carthaginian homeland in North Africa. However, the price being paid by the Romans was severe, and morale was low. The population of Italy was in a steep decline due to the fighting and also the illnesses and famine which accompanied the wars. The dread of being attacked was ever-present because Hannibal and his forces were still occupying lands in the south of Italy. Near the end of the war, Publius Cornelius Scipio was the Roman consul who was held in highest esteem by the Romans. He would later be given the agnomen (nickname) Africanus because of his exploits in Africa during this war. Scipio gained the support of the people and also Senate approval to take the war to Carthage with the hopes of drawing Hannibal out of Italy. These are the circumstances under which the Romans decided to bring a small, black stone which represented Cybele back to Italy. According to Livy, the quest for Cybele began in 205 B.C., and the 2nd Punic war had been raging for 14 years (Livius "vol. 4" 183). The following quote describes how the events unfolded.

"About this time the citizens were much exercised by a religious question which had lately come up. Owing to the unusual number of showers of stones which had fallen during the year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered which announced that whenever a foreign foe should carry war into Italy he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Idaea were brought from Pessinus to Rome. The discovery of this prediction produced all the greater impression on the senators because the deputation who had taken the gift to Delphi reported on their return that when they sacrificed to the Pythian Apollo the indications presented by the victims were entirely favourable, and further, that the response of the oracle was to the effect that a far grander victory was awaiting Rome than the one from whose spoils they had brought the gift to Delphi. They regarded the hopes thus raised as confirmed by the action of Scipio in demanding Africa as his province as though he had a presentiment that this would bring the war to an end. In order, therefore, to secure all the sooner the victory which the Fates the omens and the oracles alike foreshadowed, they began to think out the best way of transporting the goddess to Rome" (Livius "vol. 4" 211).

The gift which was presented to the oracle at Delphi was probably spoils from the Roman raid on the Carthaginian homeland. The black stone representing Cybele which the Romans sought was located in Pessinus, Phrygia which is in modern day Turkey. The Romans selected some of their most important men to set sail with five quinqueremes in order to make a grand impression as they sought the "Mother of the gods." On their way, they again stopped and consulted the oracle at Delphi who reassured them they would be successful in obtaining the goddess and they "were to take care that the best and noblest men in Rome should accord her a fitting reception" (Livius "vol. 4" 212). The men traveled to Pergamum and met with King Attalus who took them to Pessinus and gave them the black stone which represented Cybele.

"They went on to the royal residence in Pergamum, and here the king [Attalus] gave them a friendly welcome and conducted them to Pessinus in Phrygia. He then handed over to them the sacred stone which the natives declared to be 'the Mother of the Gods,' and bade them carry it to Rome. M. Valerius Falto was sent on in advance to announce that the goddess was on her way, and that the best and noblest man in Rome must be sought out to receive her with all due honour" (Livius "vol. 4" 212).

The Roman senate made a big deal of selecting the "noblest man in Rome." They chose a very young man named Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica who was the cousin of the Consul Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. The Cybelean cult was led by virgin priestesses. P. Scipio Nasica took possession of the idol from her native priestesses and passed it to the Roman virgin priestesses who took charge of it. The arrival of the goddess at Rome in April of 204 B.C. was met by much fanfare as is seen in the next quote.

"P. Scipio was ordered to go to Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination. As soon as the ship appeared off the mouth of the Tiber he put out to sea in accordance with his instructions, received the goddess from the hands of her priestesses, and brought her to land. Here she was received by the foremost matrons of the City, amongst whom the name of Claudia Quinta stands out pre-eminently. According to the traditional account her reputation had previously been doubtful, but this sacred function surrounded her with a halo of chastity in the eyes of posterity. The matrons, each taking their turn in bearing the sacred image, carried the goddess into the temple of Victory on the Palatine. All the citizens flocked out to meet them, censers in which incense was burning were placed before the doors in the streets through which she was borne, and from all lips arose the prayer that she would of her own free will and favour be pleased to enter Rome. The day on which this event took place was 12th April, and was observed as a festival; the people came in crowds to make their offerings to the deity; a lectisternium was held and Games were constituted which were known afterwards as the Megalesian.
XV. Penalties inflicted on the recalcitrant Colonies.—Whilst steps were being taken to complete the drafts for the legions in the provinces, some of the senators suggested that the time had come to deal with a state of things, which, however they might have put up with it at a time of critical emergency, was intolerable now that the goodness of the gods had removed their fears"
(Livius "vol. 4" 216).

The last line of that quote shows the arrival of Cybele had a profound effect on the morale of the Roman people. The quote also shows the stone which represented Cybele was small enough to be passed by hand from woman to woman and yet Ovid tells us they cut down a Phrygian forest to build a ship in order to convey the stone from Phrygia to Italy. The ceremonious entry into Rome spoken of in this quote is also described by Ovid in his Fasti.

"Wonders I sing! —the earth with murmurs shook, And from her sanctuary the Goddess spoke:— Their wish is mine: let no delay be made, But to our voyage give your willing aid; From hence to Rome I transfer my abode,— Rome is a place worthy of every God. Fearing the sound,—go forth, the monarch cried, With happy omens, providence your guide! Though far removed, you still our own shall be,— Rome will confess her Phrygian ancestry. The pine-tree woods, unnumbered axes hew,— Woods which of old the pious Phrygian knew, When with his household Gods and aged Sire, He sought the sea, to shun the Grecian fire. A thousand hands combine;—in painted pride The gallant vessel floats upon the tide; The concave hold the Goddess now receives; The prow divides her Son great Neptune's waves:— They hoist the sails, they man the labouring oars, And safely skirt the Hellespontic shores" (Ovid 151).

The Cybelean cult would become one of the most vital cults in Rome.

"By melding public and private, the festivals of Attis and the Magna Mater established this cult, especially among the aristocracy, as one of the most vital cults in the fourth-century city" (Salzman 169).

According to Macrobius, Ops (an alias for Cybele) was the secret protecting god of Rome itself.

"2. For it is commonly understood that all cities are protected by some god, and that it was secret custom of the Romans (one unknown to many) that when they were laying siege to an enemy city and were confident it could be taken, they used a specific spell to call out the gods that protected it, because they either believed the city could otherwise not be taken or—even if it could be taken—thought it against divine law to hold gods captive. 3. That’s why the Romans themselves wanted both the god responsible for protecting Rome and the Latin name of the city itself to remain unknown. 4. Yet the god’s name was included in some of the ancients’ books—though they disagree among themselves—and for that reason the range of opinion on the matter is familiar to those who delve into ancient beliefs and practices. For some believed the god was Jupiter, others Lua, some Angerona, who calls for silence by putting her finger to her lips, still others—whom I’m more inclined to trust—said that she is Ops Consivia" (Macrobius vol. II 65-67).

According to Livy, the Roman senate made a contract for the "building of a temple to Mater Magna on the Palatine" (Livius "vol. 4" 243). They paid for this by adding a new tax on salt. This temple, called the Phrygianum, was constructed on what is now known as the Vatican hill near where St. Peter's Basilica now resides.

"In antiquity, the Vatican was valued for its many brickfields, notorious on account of its bitter wine but renowned also for several buildings. There stood the Naumachia (a stadium for aquatic sports); a kind of race course to which tradition has given the name of Gaianum (after Caligula); to the south of this, the sepulcher of the Emperor Hadrian and, in the neighborhood of the present St. Peter's, the Phrygianum, a sanctuary of the goddess Cybele" (Murphy "Vatican").

In fact, the temple to Cybele coexisted with the Christian basilica, and according to the next quote, there was an intermingling of faiths within families which included sacrificial rites to Cybele on Vatican hill.

"Long located on the Vatican hill and not far from the Christian basilica was a very important sanctuary dedicated to Cybele: the Phrygianum. There is evidence to suggest that the way these two cults had to share the same space caused difficulties right from the start.
The second ambivalence emerges if we examine the family situation of Lampadius, according to the stemma proposed in the 'Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire.' He was destined to have a brilliant career and in AD 365 should have become praefectus urbi. He was definitely a pagan, moreover, and a devotee of Cybele. He had undergone the rite of the taurobolium [bull sacrifice to Cybele] in the sanctuary at Ostia, while among his numerous children Caeonius Rufius Volusianus celebrated the taurobolium in the Vatican sanctuary itself, once in 370 and a second time in 390. Sabina did the same in 377, and so too Rufia Volusiana in 370, together with her husband Petronius Apollodorus. A branch of the family, however, converted to the Christian faith, and among them we can count the sister Albina and her daughters: the ascetic Asella and the biblical scholar Marcella, who were correspondents of Saint Jerome. One could add that Lampadius's nephew Pammachius was one of the better-known Christian senators at the end of the century. Pagans and Christians thus coexisted in the same family and in the same circle of acquaintances. There is reason to believe, therefore, that Lamadius knew both the pagan and Christian slopes of the Vatican hill rather well"
(McKitterick 23-24).

Numerous inscriptions found beneath the Basilica identify the area as a worship center of Cybele and Attis.

Remnants of Cybele in Rome

Image of Pinecone fountain at Vatican
Pinecone fountain at the Vatican
Remnants of a Cybelean temple on Palatine hill.
(Showerman, "Great Mother" 321 face)

The worship of Cybele was so ingrained in pagan Rome the remnants of Cybelean worship are still apparent around the Vatican to this day. According to some sources, the word Vatican itself comes from the word vates meaning soothsayer or oracle. Some modern day followers of the Magna Mater claim an oracle of Cybele inspired the name Vatican. Other sources claim the word is of Etruscan origin with an uncertain meaning. Regardless of the origin of the name, the area around the Vatican is awash with artifacts associated with the worship of the "Queen of Heaven." This image shows the remnants of the Cybelean temple on Palatine hill. The Vatican grottoes contain a 4th century stone base from the sanctuary of the Phrygian deities of Cybele and Attis. The bas reliefs depict crossed torches, a bull, flutes and a Pine tree decorated with a drum, syrinx (pan flute associated with water nymphs), and other items which are also related to the cult of Cybele. A statue of Attis/Mithras slaying a bull is on display inside the Hall of Animals in the Pio Clementino Museum at the Vatican. The Fontana della Pigna (Pine cone fountain), located in an enormous niche in the wall of the Vatican, is also most likely a remnant of Cybelean worship called the Dendrophoria. The Dendrophoria was a ceremony connected with sacrifices to the pagan god which involved the worshippers carrying trees through the streets. However, the worshippers of Cybele did not simply carry any tree through the streets; the Pine tree was sacred to the cult of Cybele.

The Pine Tree

The following quote from the Myths Encyclopedia explains why the Pine tree was sacred to Cybele.

"According to myth, Cybele discovered that her youthful lover Attis was unfaithful. In a jealous rage, she made him go mad and mutilate himself under a pine tree, where he bled to death. Regretting what she had done, Cybele mourned her loss. Zeus promised her that the pine tree would remain sacred forever.

 . . . During the Roman empire, followers of Cybele held an annual spring festival dedicated to the goddess. The ceremonies involved cutting down a pine tree that represented the dead Attis. After wrapping the tree in bandages, the followers took it to Cybele's shrine. There they honored the tree and decorated it with violets, which they considered to have sprung from Attis's blood. As part of this religious ceremony, priests cut their arms so that their blood fell on Cybele's altar and the sacred pine tree. They also danced to the music of cymbals, drums, and flutes. During these wild rites, some followers even mutilated themselves, as Attis had. Cybele was usually portrayed by artists in a chariot drawn by lions"

The works of Virgil also attest to the fact the Pine tree was sacred to the cult of Cybele.

"On Ida's brows, for ages past there stood,
With firs and maples filled, a shady wood ;
And on the summit rose a sacred grove,
Where I was worshipped with religious love ;
These woods, that holy grove, my long delight,
I gave the Trojan Prince, to speed his flight.
Now filled with fear, on their behalf I come ;
Let neither winds o'erset nor waves intomb
The floating forests of the sacred pine ;
But let it be their safety to be mine.

 . . . With greater ease the bold Rutulian may
With hissing brands attempt to burn the sea,
Than singe my sacred pines"
(Virgil and Dryden 206-07).

The Pine tree has long been significant in Roman religious ceremonies. The religious significance of the Pine is still made evident by the nearly twelve-foot-high Pine cone at the Vatican's Fontana della Pigna shown above.

Remnants of Cybele in Christianity Today

As surely as there are still physical remnants of Cybelean worship in Rome today her worship is even now rejuvenated in today's Christian church. This is true in Rome and around the world. The sacred tree of Cybele (Pine tree) becomes the focal point of many Christian, and non-Christian, homes during Christmas celebrations the world over. Many of today's Christians also view the mother of Christ as forever virgin even though the Bible states Christ had both brothers and sisters.

Mat 13:55 Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?
Mat 13:56 And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things?

The perpetual virginity of Mary is a fundamental and central concept in some Christian circles. Furthermore, the Catholic Catechism declares she led a sinless life.

"966 Finally the Immaculate Virgin, preserved free from all stain of original sin, when the course of her earthly life was finished, was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory, and exalted by the Lord as Queen over all things, so that she might be the more fully conformed to her Son, the Lord of lords and conqueror of sin and death" ("Mary" 966).

The mythical Cybele was also believed to be a perpetual virgin by her worshippers even though she was also believed to be the "Mother of the gods." The following quote from Ovid's Fasti recounts the story of a maid named Claudius who had been unjustly accused of violating her vow of celibacy. The mythical story supposedly takes place during the very real occasion when the idol of Cybele was brought to Rome. According to the myth, the ship carrying the Cybelean idol became stuck in the mud as it traveled up the Tiber to Rome. The crew tried with all of their might, but they could not free the ship. Claudia then stepped forward and made a prayer to Cybele. In her prayer, she asked Cybele to kill her if she was guilty of violating her vow of celibacy or follow her if she was indeed a virgin. Claudia continued by saying Cybele could vouch for her purity since Cybele was the very emblem of virginity. According to the myth, Claudia gently pulled the ship free; thus Cybele had vouched for her chastity.

"As, with bent knee, and long dishevelled hair, Viewing the image, she thus spoke in prayer:—Celestial Mother, at whose name I bow, On one condition hear thy suppliant's vow! They say I am unchaste:—I call on thee! If thou condemn, my life shall forfeit be; If innocent, do thou my life retrieve, And to my innocence thy sanction give! Better than words, in pledge the deed will stand, If, chaste thyself, thou follow this chaste hand. 490 She said,—and gently drew the extended cord. The fact was seen,—and truth dwells in my word,—The Goddess yields, her leader's call obeys, And, by thus following, grants her highest praise" (Ovid 153)!

Some Christians today see the "Virgin Mary" as a protector of mankind and as a mediator between man and God.

"969 This motherhood of Mary in the order of grace continues uninterruptedly from the consent which she loyally gave at the Annunciation and which she sustained without wavering beneath the cross, until the eternal fulfilment of all the elect. Taken up to heaven she did not lay aside this saving office but by her manifold intercession continues to bring us the gifts of eternal salvation. . . . Therefore the Blessed Virgin is invoked in the Church under the titles of Advocate, Helper, Benefactress, and Mediatrix
971 . . . The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship. 513 The Church rightly honors the Blessed Virgin with special devotion. From the most ancient times the Blessed Virgin has been honored with the title of 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs"
("Mary" 969-71).

Cybele was also seen as a mediator and protector.

"This same ability to communicate with both the wild and tame environment may underlie the use of architectural facades in funerary cult also, for here too the deity transcends boundaries, in this case the irrevocable boundary between the known environment of life and the unknown world of death.
 . . . Taken together, the material suggests that the Phrygian Mother Goddess was not limited by the conventional modern definitions of motherly qualities, of fertility and nurturing, but was focused on a figure of power and protection, able to touch on many aspects of life and mediate between the boundaries of the known and the unknown"
(Roller 113-14).
Image showing the "Virgin Mary" with "sacred heart"
(McGovern 196 Face)

Some Christian sects have a long standing tradition associated with the "Sacred heart" which is sometimes referred to as the "Sacred Heart of Christ." There is a devotion to the "sacred heart," a feast of the "sacred heart," and many schools, hospitals, churches, and cathedrals bear the name of "sacred heart." Pictures representing both Christ and Mary are often depicted with radiating hearts exposed on their chests. Some say the physical heart of Christ is representative of His divine love for humanity. The origin of the "Sacred heart" tradition is credited to a series of apparitions and revelations experienced by two nuns in the 17th and 19th centuries. However, the accuracy of these stories of origin are doubtful since the "Sacred heart" was already well established in pagan religious rites associated with sacrifices to Cybele before the 4th century. In early first millennium Rome, devotion to Cybele led pagans to be baptized in the blood of bulls. Before that, other societies sacrificed the sow in her honor. In any case, only the heart was actually offered to the pagan deity according to the next two quotes.

"The following rites were peculiarly observed in her sacrifices: her temple was opened not by hands, but by prayers; none entered who had tasted garlic; the priests sacrificed to her, sitting and touching the earth, and offered the hearts of the victims. And lastly, among the trees, the box and the pine were sacred to her. The box, because the pipes used in her sacrifices were made of it: the pine, for the sake of Atys, Attes, or Attines, a boy that Cybele much loved, and made him president of her rites, upon condition that he always preserved his chastity inviolate" (Tooke 158).

"The Animal most commonly sacrificed to Cybele was the Sow, on Account of its Fruitfulness.
The Priests of this Deity were the Corybantes, Curetes, Idæi, Daetyli and Telchines, all originally of Crete ; who, in their mystical Rites, made great use of Cymbals, and other Instruments of Brass, attended with extravagant Cries and Howlings. They sacrificed sitting on the Earth, and offer'd only the Hearts of the Victims"
(Boyse 34).

Image showing women carrying an idol of Mary through the streets
Women carrying an idol of Mary
Image showing men carrying an idol of Mary through the streets
Idol of Mary

Today, people carry statues of Mary in processions down church isles and through the streets of the world at Easter time. The bearers of the carriage of Mary are sometimes all women like the vestal virgins associated with the ancient Roman cults of Cybele. At other times, the bearers are all fantastically dressed men who sometimes carry swords like the dancing warrior priests called Curetes of Rhea's cult. In either case, the ancient worshippers of Cybele would easily recognize the procession as one of their own.

Ovid's description of a Cybelean procession from two thousand years ago perfectly describes the types of Marian processions which take place today.

"On their soft necks her Priests the Goddess bear. Through the wide streets, while shouts afflict the air" (Ovid 148).

One can use the search term "Mary procession" on YouTube to find a thorough supply of Marian parades which would fit Ovid's description. The imagery associated with the "Virgin Mary" today is very similar to that of Cybele.

Images of Cybele and Mary
Hover over the image to see which is Cybele and which is the "Virgin Mary".

Cybele's ancient cults would undoubtedly recognize the "Virgin Mary" as their god. Much of the imagery associated with the "Virgin Mary" escapes logical explanations. For instance, one would be hard pressed to imagine a circumstance when the mother of Christ ever wore a crown of any kind. Nevertheless, today she is often portrayed in royal garb complete with a crown. Sometimes the idols of Mary are adorned with very elaborate crowns. These crowns may have extending pinnacles indicative of the sun’s rays. These crowns surely represent the sun and certainly tie the "Virgin Mary" to sun worship and bind her forever to her predecessor: Cybele. Idols of Cybele are almost always topped with a crown. Book IV of Ovid's Fasti tells us Cybele wore a turreted crown because she was responsible for granting towers to the first cities.

"Why does her head that crown embattled wear? Were towers bestowed on Phrygian towns by her? She bowed assent" (Ovid 149).

Cybele is sometimes referred to as the goddess of the cities. If one believes the words of Ovid, then the logical step is to connect the towers granted to the cities by Cybele with the first tower mentioned in the Bible: the tower of Babel. The tower of Babel which symbolizes man's disrespect for God is easily equated with the remnants of Cybelean worship intermingled with Christianity. Of course, the mythical Cybele is not capable of granting anything to anyone. However, the same force which draws people away from god and toward mythology is the same force which influenced man to build the tower of Babel in the first place. Inclusion of these remnants of Cybelean worship in Christianity is not only disrespectful to God but is also in direct opposition to the commandments of God.

Deu 12:30 Take heed to thyself that thou be not snared by following them, after that they be destroyed from before thee; and that thou enquire not after their gods, saying, How did these nations serve their gods? even so will I do likewise.

Cybele and the Christian Walk

Concerning Cybele, the only action a Christian should take is to walk away from everything associated with her mythology. Christians have long been aware of the dangers this cult poses, and some have been willing to die rather than submit to Cybelean worship. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, Theodore of Amasea burned the temple of Cybele rather than sacrifice to pagan gods.

"When the edict against the Christians was issued by the emperors, he was brought before the Court at Amasea and asked to offer sacrifice to the gods. Theodore, however, denied their existence and made a noble profession of his belief in the Divinity of Jesus Christ. The judges, pretending pity for his youth, gave him time for reflection. This he employed in burning the Temple of Cybele. He was again taken prisoner, and after many cruel torments was burned at the stake" (Mershman "St. Theodore").

Today’s Christian would be wise to also shun this god of many names. Since the time of Christ, her worship has found its way into Christianity via Rome. Cybele's feasts have been replaced by modern Christmas and Easter celebrations. Main stream Christianity has been indoctrinated into a form of sun worship through the inclusion of worship rites associated with Cybele and Attis. Her inroad into Islam was the black stone at the Kaaba. When Muhammad took control of Mecca, he cleared the Kaaba of all the idols except for the one he kissed. Since that time, millions have fallen prey to this form of stone worship. The Bible refers to her as the “queen of heaven” and strongly warns people away from her. The Bible refers to her sidekick as Tammuz and clearly rejects the rituals associated with him such as self-flagellation. Under the alias of Alma Mater, she rules over the most anti-Christian environments in civilized Society. The university is where she chips away at the foundation of Christianity by promoting evolution and casting doubt upon God in the minds of students. One must consider she is a tool of deception used by both the false prophet and the anti-Christ beast in leading astray the two largest groups of people who claim allegiance to the God of Abraham. Her symbolism can be found in homes around the world in the form of Pine trees and "Sacred heart" images. Modern day processions carry the image of Cybele in the form of the "Virgin Mary" through the streets of cities all around the globe. She is viewed as the mediator and protector by the very souls she leads away from Christ. However, throughout the ages, many of God’s people have successfully and steadfastly rejected her as the impostor she is.

2Ch 14:3 For he took away the altars of the strange gods, and the high places, and brake down the images, and cut down the groves:

We would do well to follow their lead.

Psa 62:1 To the chief Musician, to Jeduthun, A Psalm of David. Truly my soul waiteth upon God: from him cometh my salvation.
Psa 62:2 He only is my rock and my salvation; he is my defence; I shall not be greatly moved.

Mother of God or "Mother of the gods?"

1. Cybele has been a very popular pagan idol for a very long time.
2. Cybele is intertwined in Egyptian, Greek, and Roman mythology as well as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
3. Cybele has found her way into virtually every institute of higher learning in the world.
4. The Bible portrays Cybele as a serious stumbling block for the people of God.
5. Sincere Christians sing Cybele praises, and one Pope even released a music CD in honor of her.
6. No pagan deity in the history of the world has ensnared so many nations and religious sects as the "Mother of the gods" (Cybele).
7. Cybele is known by a multitude of different names.
8. Cybele's sidekick is Attis.
9. Cybele and Attis are both connected to sun worship and nature worship.
10. Cybele is also known as Mother Earth.
11. Sexual deviancy is often connected with paganism and nature worship including Cybelean worship.
12. The Bible condemns nature worship as well as all other forms of paganism.
13. The Bible condemns sexual deviancy.
14. Some of Cybele's trademark items are the crown, the Pine tree, lions, and the cube.
15. Some of Attis' trademark items are the Phrygian Cap, the pan flute, and the shepherd's crook or rod.
16. The Opalia was a festival honoring Cybele through her alias Ops.
17. Traditions from the Opalia are continued on in Christmas traditions.
18. The Bible tells us not to engage in pagan traditions.
19. Cybele can be found in the Bible under the name "queen of heaven."
20. Pagans viewed Cybele as a mediator like the "Virgin Mary" is viewed as a mediator between humans and God by many today.
21. Cybelean worship is thoroughly integrated into modern society. For instance, the word gallant is derived from the surname of Cybele's priest: Gallantes.
22. God condemns Cybelean worship in the Bible.
23. Cybele is connected to educational institutions through the title Alma Mater.
24. Cybele is also connected to educational institutions through one of her aliases: Isis, who is the "emblem of supreme wisdom and understanding" in the pagan world.
25. The basis of the university can be traced to the Roman Catholic Church.
26. Alma Maters (educational institutions) are being used by Satan to contradict the Bible through the spread of evolutionary theory.
27. Religiously observant Christian professors are discriminated against in educational institutions.
28. The teachings in public educational institutions are drawing people away from God and infecting them with un-Biblical ideologies.
29. Some Christians worship Cybele under the names "Queen of Heaven," Alma Mater, and the "Virgin Mary".
30. The "Virgin Mary," who some Christians worship, is Alma Mater who is also known as Cybele.
31. Like the fourth century church at Rome, modern Christian Churches are promoting pagan practices and un-Biblical ideas.
32. University buildings frequently have steeples exactly like church buildings; universities are a type of church.
33. Christian students are forced to choose between answering questions Biblically and correctly, or answering them according to what educational institutions require.
34. Educational institutions are no different from anything else in life. We must internalize the good and discard the bad.
35. The Alma Mater is one of the largest battle grounds where the war between truth and fiction and between good and evil is being waged.
36. Cybele has frequently been represented by a small, black stone with a rough, irregular surface.
37. There is a small, black stone with irregular surface in the Kaaba which Muslims kiss as part of their religious rites.
38. Whether a person's thoughts are directed toward a stone representing Cybele or a cross representing Christ, the result is the same: Idolatry.
39. The cube is sacred in Cybelean worship. Cybele was said to preside over cubic stone buildings.
40. The Kaaba is a cube-shaped, stone building.
41. There are groups in Islam and Christianity who mutilate themselves during bloody religious processions which are likely the remnants of Cybelean worship.
42. Cybele and Attis are viewed in paganism as saviors, and language normally reserved for Christ is used in reference to them.
43. We can find Attis in the Bible under his alias Tammuz.
44. The rituals associated with Tammuz are called abominations by God.
45. Tammuz was one of the most popular pagan deities in the past.
46. Rituals associated with Tammuz are still found in Christianity today. These are remnants of the weeping for Tammuz rituals condemned in the Bible.
47. A Phrygian forest was cut down in order to build a ship to carry a small stone representing Cybele from Turkey to Rome in 205 B.C.
48. A Cybelean temple was built near where St. Peter's Basilica now stands in Rome.
49. There are numerous remains showing Vatican hill to be a worship center for Cybele. In that respect, nothing has changed. Cybelean worship still emanates from Rome.
50. The Pine tree is sacred in Cybelean worship.
51. The "Virgin Mary" carries many of the same titles as Cybele such as "Queen of Heaven," Mother, and Alma Mater.
52. The "Virgin Mary" has the same characteristics as Cybele such as perpetual virginity (even though both had many children), protector of mankind, and mediator for mankind.
53. The worship of the "Virgin Mary" includes the same features associated with the religious rites of Cybelean worship including the "Sacred heart" and idol processions down church isles and through streets.
54. Depictions of the "Virgin Mary" are easily confused with those of Cybele. Both often contain the same symbolism. Both Cybele and the "Virgin Mary" are often shown with crowns. Mary's crowns are sometimes indicative of the sun. Both Cybele and the "Virgin Mary" are often depicted with a small boy. The boy is supposed to represent Christ when shown with Mary, or Attis when shown with Cybele.
55. The tower of Babel which symbolizes man's disrespect for God is easily equated with the remnants of Cybelean worship.
56. The Bible tells us not to worship God in the same manner pagans worship their idols.
57. Some of the aliases for Cybele include Alma Mater, Astroarche, Berecynthia Mater, Bona Dea, Dindyme or Dindymene, Elder Vesta, Estia, Fatua, Fauna, Galli, Idaea Mater, Ishtar, Isis, Magna Deorum, Magna Pales, Mater (Mother), Melechet, Mother Earth, "Mother of the gods," Mygdonia, Mylitta, Ops, Pasithea, Pessinuntia, "Queen of Heaven," Rhea, and the "Virgin Mary."

Aliases of CybeleSpouseBrother
Alma MaterEstiaIsisMother of the godsQueen of HeavenSaturnSaturn
AstroarcheFatuaMagna DeorumMygdoniaRhea
Berecynthia MaterFaunaMagna PalesMylittaVirgin Mary
Bona DeaGalliMaterOps
Dindyme or DindymeneIdaea MaterMelechetPasithea
Elder VestaIshtarMother EarthPessinuntia

We will now ascend through Pine branches to examine the star which tops many Christmas trees.


God Made Logo
Christmas Book Chapter 14

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